As an important urban infrastructure serving most people, the urban public transportation system includes public buses, electric buses, subways, taxis, ferries and other public transport vehicles. The mission of public transportation reflects its important position in a complex transportation network. Public transportation has the potential to provide low-cost and safety mobility to citizens, to facilitate a healthy environment and strong metropolitan areas by reducing traffic congestion and pollution.
During the past two decades, China has witnessed fast progress in developing urban public transport, with 93 percent of cities having a public transport network. The number of public buses shared by all Chinese cities has risen from 43,000 in 1985 to over 313,000 by late 2005. In despite of the progress, the rapid rate of economic reform has been accompanied accelerated urbanization which is adding to the challenges facing the urban public transportation sector. As urban populations and the economy grow, the demand for public transport services is growing as well, at an estimated rate of 4% per year. Due to long-standing underinvestment, the development of China’s urban public transport system fails to cope with the demand of the urban dwellers，especially in some metropolis such as Beijing, Shanghai. The crisis facing the public transportation industry is well known, generally low levels of service, poor management at bus companies, long-standing government subsidization of fares that has sapped bus companies of incentives and capacity for innovation. In recognition of the huge problems facing the industry, the desire for a better future, the vision of a new paradigm, goverment has decided to break monopoly and reform the state-owned public transport enterprises, inviting domestic and foreign investors to join the franchised operation of urban public traffic. The public transportation industry in China is on the threshold of dramatic change.
This report has six chapters. In the first chapter, which give a definition of public transport and describe the economic characteristics of the industry, then present an overview of urban public transport development in China. In the second chapter, analyse the involved policies and institution, including regulation, investment, price, subsidy, licence policy and so on. The change of focus in public transport policy towards a market-based approach implies a radical change in the role of government. The private sector would increasingly take on the responsibility for providing, operating，management and financing transport services. Thus, the role of the government as supplier or quantitative regulator will be reduced, but the importance of its functions as the enabler of competition and the custodian of environmental and social interests will increase. This requires market-oriented reform of finance and the regulatory system. In the third chapter intruduces the reform approachs of the enterprise and the modes that private investors join the industry. Then give an analysis of investment and financing system in urban railway industry. Today, the Chinese transport market is one of the fastest growing market in China. Government highlights the development of public transport as a major solution for future traffic needs. In order to overcome the obstacle of insufficiency of funds and improve efficiency, the goverment try to attract private sector participation for financing public transport, which offers good opportunities for the private investors. The fourth part try to analyse the system of investment and financing on subway. The fifth part focuse on discussing the opportunities and risks for the investors who interested in the industry. Finally, introduce some experiences about management, operator and organization structures of public transport in other countries.
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